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Contentive words in Chinuk Wawa are invariable. Nouns and adjectives do not change their shapes for morphological reasons; there is no indication of number or case on nouns, adjectives or pronouns. Attributive adjectives precede nouns. Chinuk Wawa has neither indefinite nor definite articles.

Modifying adverbs precede the adjectives:. There are several kinds of pronouns. The personal pronominal set indicates three persons, two numbers but no indication for instance of gender in the third person singular or plural, nor of a distinction of inclusivity versus exclusivity in the 1 pl pronoun. The same forms may indicate subject, direct and indirect object, and adnominal possessor:.

The forms of the personal pronouns are given in Table 3. Table 3. Chinuk Wawa Personal Pronouns. GRCW emphatic. GRCW unstressed. Chinuk Wawa uses prepositions , simple and compound. Numerals in Chinuk Wawa precede the noun group and are of Chinookan origin. Unlike in Lower Chinook, Chinuk Wawa verbs do not change their forms in order to indicate tense, mood, aspect, person or number.

Tense indications can be made by the prefixing of temporal adverbs to the verb group, but this is rarely done and is rare in narrative texts; narrators rely on context instead. Similarly the reduplicaton of a verb which is commoner in GRCW can indicate that the action it expresses continued repeatedly or that it lasted for a long period of time. Verb serialization as such is not used, but more than one verb can occur in a verb group.

Hymns in the Chinook jargon language

The general order is subject - verb - object - adjunct. Parataxis is commoner than hypotaxis in Chinuk Wawa sentences. Nonetheless, Chinuk Wawa has a few subordinating conjunctions which precede their clauses. English suppose , is of Chinookan origin. There is no complementizer for use in object clauses. The glossed text below provides several instances of temporal adverbial subordinate clauses. Relative clauses are present in our data for GRCW, where the subject of the relative clause was replaced by uk :.

Wh-questions are formed with clause-initial wh-words:.

Polar questions can be indicated and can be distinguished from statements by the use of sentence-final na. The structure of Chinuk Wawa seems to have been very uniform throughout the regions where it was used. Considerable lexical variation especially the incorporation of more words from English occurred both over periods of time and from one region to another, as a result of small-scale borrowing from local languages which rarely resulted in local words becoming more widely used in other areas, but even then the everyday vocabulary of Chinuk Wawa remained rather stable throughout a huge geographical area.

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There is one major exception to this tendency. The Chinuk Wawa which was used by many speakers living at Grand Ronde Reservation, northwestern Oregon, showed an increase in structural complexity as well as a more complex segmental phonological system and an increase in words of Chinookan origin in the lexicon. It is easy to overplay the differences between GRCW and the more conventional form of the language. Differences between GRCW and ordinary Chinuk Wawa consist of the availability in GRCW of non-emphatic reduced forms of about a dozen high-frequency morphemes many of which have been grammaticalized and given new functions, and all of which coexist in GRCW with their unreduced counterparts, though the latter often have new senses and the addition to the lexicon of a few dozen words of Chinookan origin, many of them onomatopoeic in nature, with the addition of a smaller number of words of French, English or other origins which are not found in other Chinuk Wawa varieties.

It meets the criteria of the McWhorter creole prototype: It lacks phonemic lexical or other tone, it has no productive morphology though in the Grand Ronde variety of Chinuk Wawa , proclitic personal pronouns are used, as are tense-aspect markers and a causative prefix, these being absent from the usual variety of the language and it does not use any productive non-compositional derivation. However, in terms of segmental and canonical phonology Chinuk Wawa as spoken by Indians and some non-Indians, and not just the Grand Ronde variety, is rather typical of a Pacific Northwest Coast Native American language, lacking only pharyngeals and glottalized continuants among the sets of characteristic Northwest Coast sounds.

It uses a four-way stop contrast e.

  • Corruption and Development.
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  • Hymns in the Chinook jargon language?
  • Language Creolized Grand Ronde Chinook Jargon.
  • HYMNS In The CHINOOK JARGON LANGUAGE | Rev. M. Eells | 2nd edition, revised & enlargedition.

The other forms for which both short and long versions short versions deriving from the long versions, and which though not always monosyllabic are always unstressed contrast structurally and semantically are as follows:. Chinuk Wawa is a macaronic pidgin because the elements which comprise its most basic lexicon derive from a number of different languages.

We may further note the lability of pidgin lexica from seeing the change in composition of the lexicon of Chinuk Wawa at several points in time cf. Table 4 : As Thomason indicates, Chinuk Wawa has its roots in a Nuuchahnulth-based pidgin of the late 18th and early 19th century, which presumably originated in British Columbia but which absorbed numerous lexical items from Lower Chinook, English and French when its White users went to the lower Columbia River. Subsequent borrowing, largely from local Salishan languages such as from Nisqually and other forms of Coast Salishan in Puget Sound, Washington State , occurred to a small extent in some regions and the words which were borrowed only achieved local currency.

Meanwhile the semi-creolized version that was used at Grand Ronde, Oregon, and which was the major but hardly ever the only available medium of communication for a few generations of displaced Native Americans, acquired further lexicon from Chinookan languages, which had a number of speakers in the first generations of settlement at Grand Ronde, and acquired additional vocabulary from English and French.

Large-scale relexification towards English took place possibly independently in each area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in many areas and in most varieties of Chinuk Wawa. Table 4. Etymological structure of Chinook Wawa in five eras. Others incl. This is a lexicon of the variety used at Grand Ronde Reservation, Oregon. The forms listed there for GR date from records of the s to present day materials. The English elements in the column show many instances both of relexification the substitution of one morph by another and adlexification the addition and refining of distinctions within a pre-existing semantic field by the addition of a new morph and thereby a new meaning to Chinuk Wawa vocabulary.

The problem of etymologizing much of the Chinuk Wawa vocabulary is exacerbated by the fact that no extensive or scientifically transcribed dictionary of any Chinookan language has been publicly available for consultation. Boas, Franz. Chinook songs. Journal of American Folklore 1. Note on the Chinook Jargon.

Hymns in the Chinook Jargon Language

Language 9. I called you! In the little house, no? In the shitter, eh?

Cake Day. Looks like you're using new Reddit on an old browser. The Lord's Prayer in Chinook Jargon. Kloshe spose mika chako delate Tyee kopa Good if thou become true Chief over konoway tillicums. Kloshe spose mika all people. Good if thy tumtum mitlite kopa illahee, kahkwa kopa mind is on the earth, as in Saghalie. Give to us during this sun nesika muckamuck. Mamook klahowya day our food. Pity nesika kopa nesika mesachie mamook, us for our wickedness, kahkwa nesika mamook klahowya klaksta as we pity any man spose yaka mamook mesachie kopa man if he does evil to nesika.

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