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The front cover and first few pages show signs of use, the rest is very good. As it shows him one of a fiercely devoted family, schooled in the strict evangelical faith, it reveals with dramatic and telling insight a man and a career in the making. Cary's novels have this in common: In all of them he is pre-eminently a storyteller and his concern is character.
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As the critics have pointed out time and again, he is always fresh, always surprising. First performed in December, , this comedy, based on the life of an actual 17th-century figure, was a great success-- Rostand's only, but it made him a major figure; the play continues to be performed on stage and in film.
NY, Pantheon . Hard Cover. Walter R. Davis with his annotations. Copy 2 from the library of Alan Trueblood. Stock x. Barcelona, Editorial Planeta . Two classic Spanish Picaresque novels in a critical edition.
Barcelona: Anthropos, First Edition. Includes in the Ponencias, Alan S.
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Trueblood on the Cervantes Society of America. This was Trueblood's copy. Madrid, Ediciones Studium . Soft Cover.
Three folding facsimile letters of Del Rio, 3 pages of transcription, 2 leaves with 4 photos of Lorca in Vermont. Cummings provided Lorca with refuge and solace in Vermont at a time when Lorca's spirits were at their lowest ebb. VG, pamphlet.
NY, Thomas Y. Crowell [ca ? Published in , Middlemarch is a didactic novel commenting on social and political upheavals and the urge to reform in 19th-century England. NY, Twayne . Inscribed by Duran to Alan Trueblood. French novelist and essayist, Bernanos is considered one of the most original Roman Catholic writers of his time. In this work, first published in Paris, the year in which he went into self-imposed exile in Brazil, where he spent seven years working unsuccessfully as a farmer , Bernanos denounces Franco's rebellion against the Spanish republic.
Madrid, Gredos . Madrid, M. Aguilar, What makes Biblio different? Facebook Instagram Twitter. Sign In Register Help Cart 0. Cart 0 items. Toggle navigation. A Critical Bibliography of French Literature. Volume II. These three are masters of their craft, and one of them is the greatest poet of his time ; but their puissant art has not superseded the virile creation of the nameless, candid, patriotic singer who wrote the Poema del Cid some eight hundred years ago.
French influence is likewise visible in the work of Gonzalo de Berceo, the earliest Spanish poet whose name we know for certain ; writing in the first half of the thirteenth century, Berceo draws largely on the Miracles de Nostre Dame, a collection of edifying legends versified by Gautier de Coinci, Prior of the monastery at Vic-sur-Aisne. As Gautier died in , the speed with which his version of these pious stories passed from France to Spain goes to show that literary communication had already been estabhshed between the two countries. At one time or another during the Middle Ages all Western Europe followed the French lead in hterature.
From about , when Konrad wrote his Rolandslied, French influence prevailed in Germany for a century, affecting poets so con- siderable as Hartmann von Aue, Wolfram von Eschenbach, and Gottfried von Strassburg. French influence was dominant in Italy from before the reign of Frederick ii.
You all know that French influence was most noticeable in England from Layamon's time to Chaucer's, and that Chaucer himself, besides translating part of the Rofnan de la Rose, borrowed hints from Guillaume de Machault and Oton de Granson — two minor poets whose works, by the way, were treasured by the Marques de Santillana, of whom I shall have something to say in the next lecture. Where- ever we turn at this period, sooner or later we shall find that French literature has left its mark, Scandinavian scholars inform us that the Strengleikar includes translations of Marie de France's lais ; and Floire et Blanchejleur was also done into Icelandic at the beginning of the fourteenth century when the Archpriest of Hita — who refers apprecia- tively to this French romance — was still young.
Jean Bodel's well-worn couplet is a trite statement of fact : — Ne sont que trois matieres a nul homme attendant, De France et de Bretaigne et de Rome le grant. This rapid summary is enough to prove that Spain, in copying French originals, was doing no more than other countries. The work of her early singers has the interest which attaches to every new literary experiment, but the great mass of it necessarily lacks originality and force.
It was not until the fourteenth century was fairly advanced that Spain produced two authors of unmistakable individual genius. It has been inferred from this that the Archpriest was a native of Alcala de Henares, and therefore a fellow-towns- man of Cervantes. It is possible that he may have been, but the Gayoso manuscript gives a variant on the reading in the Salamanca manuscript : — Fija, mucho vos saluda uno que mora en Alcala. The truth is that we do not know where and when Juan Ruiz was born, nor where and when he died.
It is thought that he was born towards the end of the thirteenth century, and Sr. Puyol y Alonso in his interesting monograph suggests as a likely date: but these are conjectures. Ruiz is an unpromising subject, yet he has not escaped altogether. A writer of comparatively modern date — Francisco de Torres, author of an unpublished Historia de Guadalajara — alleges that the Archpriest was living at Guadalajara in It is difficult to reconcile this statement with the assertion made by Alfonso Paratinen who seems to have been the copyist of the Salamanca manuscript.
At the end of his copy Paratinen writes : ' This is the Archpriest of Hita's book which he composed, being imprisoned by order of the Cardinal Don Gil, Arch- bishop of Toledo. Now, accord- ing to stanza in the Salamanca manuscript, Ruiz finished his work in of the Spanish Era : — Era de mjU e tresjentos e ochenta e vn anos fue conpuesto el rromange, per muchos males e danos que fasen muchos e muchas aotras con sus engaiios e per mOstrar alos synplex fablas e versos estranos. The year of the Spanish Era corresponds to in our reckoning, and we may accept the statement in the text that Juan Ruiz wrote his poem at this date.
We may further take it that the poem was written in jail. There is nothing, except the absence of proof, against the current theory that the Arch- priest died in prison — possibly at Toledo — shortly before January 7, , when Pedro Fernandez took his place at Hita ; but there is nothing, except the same absence of proof, against a counter-theory that he was released before this date, that he followed Don Gil Albornoz into exile, and that he died at Avignon.
We have no data, and are left to ramble in the field of conjecture. Some idea of the Archpriest's personality may, however, be gathered from his work. We are not told how long he was in jail, nor what his offence was. He himself declares in his Cdntica, de loores de Santa Maria that his punishment was unjust : — Santa virgen escogida. His testimony in his own favour is not conclusive. Possibly, as Sr.
The Archpriest is more likely to have been imprisoned for some such indiscretion than for loose living. Clerical morality was at a low point in Spain during the fourteenth century, and, though Juan Ruiz was a disreputable cleric, he was no worse than many of his brethren. But he was certainly no better than most of them His first editor, Tomas Antonio Sanchez, acting against the remonstrances of Jove-Llanos and the Spanish Academy of History, con- trived to lend Juan Ruiz a false air of respectability by omitting from the text some objectionable passages and by bowdlerising others.
Sanchez did not foresee that his good intentions would be frustrated by Jose Amador de los Rios, who thoughtfully collected the scandalous stanzas which had been omitted, and printed them by themselves in the Iluslraciones to the fourth volume of his Historia de la literatura espanola. If Sanchez had made Juan Ruiz seem better than he wafe, Rios made him seem worse. Yet Rios had succeeded somehow in persuading himself that Juan Ruiz was an excellent man who voluntarily became 'a holo- caust, of the moral idea which he championed. It would be an exaggeration to say that he was an unbeliever, for, though he indulges in irreverent parodies of the liturgy, his verses to the Blessed Virgin are unmistakably sincere ; he was a criminous clerk like many of his contemporaries who had taken orders as the easiest means of gaining a livelihood ; but, unlike these jovial goliards, the sensual Archpriest had the temperament of a poet as well as the tastes of a satyr.
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It is as a poet that he interests us, as the author of a work the merits of which can scarcely be over- estimated as regards its ironical, picaresque presentation of scenes of clerical and lay life. De la santidat mucha es byen grand lycionario, mas de juego e de burla chico breujario, por ende fago punto e cierro mj almario, sea vos chica fabla solas e letuario. The very name of his book, which has but recently become available in a satisfactory form, has long been doubtful. About a century after it was written, Alfonso Martinez de Toledo, the Archpriest of Talavera, called it a Tratado ; a few years later than the Archpriest of Talavera, Santillana referred to it curtly as the Libro del Arcipreste de Hita; Sanchez entitled it Poesias when he issued it in , and Florencio Janer republished it in as the Libro de Cantares.
However, we do not act with any indecent haste in these matters, and it was not till just seventy years later that Wolf's hint was taken by M. We can at last read the Libro de buen amor more or less as Ruiz wrote it ; or, rather, we can read the greater part of it, for fragments are missing, some passages having been removed from the manuscripts, perhaps by over-modest readers. Yet much remains to do. A diplomatic edition is valuable, but it is only an instalment of what we need.
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If any one amongst you is in search of a tough piece of work, he can do no better for himself and us 1 In a contribution to the Jahrhiicher der Literatur "Wien, , vols. See the reprint in Ferdinand Wolf, Studien zur Geschichtc dcr spanischen und portugicsischen Hationalliteratur Berlin, No literary genius, however great, can break completely with the past, and the Arch- priest underwent the influence of his predecessors at home.
It is the fashion nowadays to say that he was not learned, and no doubt he poses at times as a simpering provincial ignoramus, especially as regards ecclesiastical doctrine and discipline : — Escolar so mucho rrudo, njn maestro njn doctor, aprendi e se poco para ser demostrador. But the Archpriest does not wish to be taken at his word, and, to prevent any possible misunderstanding, in almost the next breath he slyly advises his befooled reader to consult the Especulo as well as los libros de ostiense, que son grand parlatorio, el jnocencio quarto, vn sotil consistorio, el rrosario de guido, nouela e diratorio.
We shall see that he knew much of what was best worth knowing in French literature, and that he knew something of colloquial Arabic appears from the Moorish girl's replies to Trotaconventos. Probably enough his allusions to Plato and Aristotle imply nothing more solid in the way of learning than Chaucer's allusion to Pythagoras in The Book of the Duchesse. The Archpriest was not, of course, a mediaeval scholiast, much less an exact scholar in the modern sense ; but, for a man whose lot was cast in an insignificant village, his reading and general culture were far above the average.
A brief examination of the Libro de huen amor will make this clear : it will also show that the Archpriest had qualities more enviable than all the learning in the world. He opens with forty lines invoking the blessing of God upon his work, and then he descends suddenly into prose, quoting copiously from Scripture, insisting on the purity of his motives, and asserting that his object is to warn men and women against foolish or unhallowed love.
Having lulled the suspicions of uneasy readers with this unctuous preamble, he parenthetically observes : ' Still, as it is human nature to sin, in case any should choose to indulge in foolish love which I do not advise , various methods of the same will be found set out here. He again com- mends his work to God, celebrates the joys of Our Lady, and then proceeds to write a sort of picaresque novel in the metre known as the mester de clereda — a quatrain of monorhymed alexandrines.
And, as no man in his wits can laugh without cause, Juan Ruiz undertakes to provide enter- tainment, but hopes that he may not be misunderstood as 1 Interpone tuis interdum gaudia curis, Ut possis animo quemvis sufferre laborem. The Greek champion was a master of all learning, while the Romans were represented by an illiterate ragamuffin dressed in a doctor's gown.
The sage held up one finger, the lout held up his thumb and two fingers ; the sage stretched out his open hand, the lout shook his fist violently. This closed the argument, for the wise Greek hastily admitted that the Roman claim was justified.